The heartbeat is triggered by the release of Ca2+ from Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) within cardiomyocytes. Recent data indicate RyR arrangement is highly malleable. However, mechanisms controlling RyR reorganisation and the subsequent impact on Ca2+ homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we show that prolonged β-adrenergic stimulation causes RyR clusters to disperse, drastically altering the frequency and kinetics of Ca2+ release events called “Ca2+ sparks” in a process that is dependent on CaMKII and PKA. In healthy cells, these compensatory effects protect against arrhythmogenic Ca2+ over-activity. However, during heart failure, RyR hyper-phosphorylation and dispersion impairs Ca2+ release and cardiac performance. Thus, RyR localization and function are intimately linked via channel phosphorylation which, while finely tuned in health, underlies impaired cardiac function during pathology.